The opkg package manager can install, update and remove individual software packages, resolve dependencies between packages and report what software is installed. Here, we'll explain how to install an individual package, download an updated list of packages, see what is currently installed and manage the package repositories. Let's imagine that you have just finished the Bitbake tutorial. To install the helloworld-0.0.ipk package, copy this file over to your home directory the COM.
$ opkg install helloworld-0.0.ipk
Note: If you are using an older root filesystem with a verdex board, use the command ipkg in place of opkg.
Installing and removing a single package with no dependencies is pretty straightforward. Fortunately, getting large packages with lots of dependencies is also simple if your COM has access to the internet.
$ opkg update Downloading http://cumulus.gumstix.org/feeds/unstable/ipk/glibc/armv7a/base/Packages.gz. Inflating http://cumulus.gumstix.org/feeds/unstable/ipk/glibc/armv7a/base/Packages.gz.
Updated list of available packages in /var/lib/opkg/base. ... $ opkg list_installed | grep gcc
libgcc1 - 4.3.3-r17.1.6
$ opkg install task-native-sdk
Begin by fetching an updated list of packages from the internet, then list the packages currently installed on the system. This list is extensive, so it's helpful to filter applications with a tool like grep. Here, we search for gcc to see if a software development kit (SDK) is available, and then use opkg to download and install one.
Note: This particular package can take up to an hour to download and install, but can be rather convenient.
By default, opkg uses the Gumstix repositories defined in the configurations files found under /etc/opkg/. This repository, however, does not contain all the packages you can build using OpenEmbedded. For example, we can add the armv7a base·Angstrom Distribution repository to our list of repositories.
$ opkg list | wc -l
$ echo 'src/gz angstrom-base http://feeds.angstrom-distribution.org/feeds/unstable/ipk/glibc/armv7a/
base' > /etc/opkg/angstrom-base.conf
$ opkg update
$ opkg list | wc -l
With your own web server you can use OpenEmbedded to host your package repository. Do this by directing your web server to export the contents of your ipk folder in your tmp directory. The OpenEmbedded Manual explains the benefits and shortcomings of this approach andl explains how to set it up. See the Package Feeds section of the Reference chapter (Chapter 9). This is particularly useful in collaborative environments when one computer is the dedicated OpenEmbedded build machine.
There are several useful repositories. By default, Gumstix COMs fetch packages from the Gumstix repositories. The Angstrom distribution maintains an online package browser showing the content of all their package repositories.
Here is the full usage information for opkg:
usage: opkg [options...] sub-command [arguments...] where sub-command is one of: Package Manipulation: update Update list of available packages upgrade Upgrade installed packages install Install package(s) configure Configure unpacked package(s) remove Remove package(s) flag Flag package(s) =hold|noprune|user|ok|installed|unpacked (one per invocation) Informational Commands: list List available packages list-installed List installed packages list-upgradable List installed and upgradable packages files List files belonging to search List package providing info [pkg|regexp] Display all info for status [pkg|regexp] Display all status for download Download to current directory compare-versions compare versions using = = print-architecture List installable package architectures whatdepends [-A] [pkgname|pat]+ whatdependsrec [-A] [pkgname|pat]+ whatprovides [-A] [pkgname|pat]+ whatconflicts [-A] [pkgname|pat]+ whatreplaces [-A] [pkgname|pat]+ Options: -A Query all packages not just those installed -V Set verbosity level to . --verbosity[=] Verbosity levels: 0 errors only 1 normal messages (default) 2 informative messages 3 debug 4 debug level 2 -f Use as the opkg configuration file --conf --cache Use a package cache -d Use as the the root directory for --dest package installation, removal, upgrading. should be a defined dest name from the configuration file, (but can also be a directory name in a pinch). -o Use as the root directory for --offline-root offline installation of packages. Force Options: --force-depends Install/remove despite failed dependencies --force-maintainer Overwrite preexisting config files --force-reinstall Reinstall package(s) --force-overwrite Overwrite files from other package(s) --force-downgrade Allow opkg to downgrade packages --force-space Disable free space checks --noaction No action -- test only --download-only No action -- download only --nodeps Do not follow dependencies --force-removal-of-dependent-packages Remove package and all dependencies --autoremove Remove packages that were installed automatically to satisfy dependencies -t Specify tmp-dir. --tmp-dir Specify tmp-dir. regexp could be something like 'pkgname*' '*file*' or similar e.g. opkg info 'libstd*' or opkg search '*libop*' or opkg remove 'libncur*'